This posting is based solely on what I read on the web — so please note any mistakes or misconceptions you encounter or alternatively contact me for corrections.
This describes a model framework comparison exercise.
This suite of projects are variously tagged MODEX (energy system models), open_MODEX (open source models), MODEX‑Net (electricity network models). The acronym MODEX itself expands and translates as "model experiments for the energiewende. This package of work was commissioned by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Climate Action. The project landing page is here (in German):
Some 40 modeling frameworks were involved in the overall investigation, with eight being open source and the remainder closed source. Much of the work is captured in this special issue (subject to stepwise additions, it would seem):
- MODEX: energy system model comparisons through harmonized applications. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. Edited by Hans-Christian Gils, Christoph Weber, Dominik Möst, and Jochen Linßen.
The studies themselves typically include the European power system where appropriate, but the focus is on analysis that is able to assist national policy formation in Germany.
Regarding terminology, a “modeling framework” or just “framework” is the phrase that energy system analysts seem to have settled upon to describe a core codebase and associated workflows, tooling, documentation, and technical support — roughly what one would find on GitHub or GitLab. And a “model”, when used more specifically, refers to a framework that has been downloaded and populated with data to investigate some particular research question. The research question and the selected framework need to align, of course.
The following paper covers the methodology and tooling that supported some of the comparison studies:
- Syranidou, Chloi, Matthias Koch, Björn Matthes, Christian Winger, Jochen Linßen, Christian Rehtanz, and Detlef Stolten (1 May 2022). “Development of an open framework for a qualitative and quantitative comparison of power system and electricity grid models for Europe”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 159: 112055. ISSN 1364-0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.112055.
The overarching project also sought to develop and use harmonized data to improve the validity of the comparisons:
- Gardian, Hedda, Johannes-P Beck, Matthias Koch, Robert Kunze, Christoph Muschner, Ludwig Hülk, and Michael Bucksteeg (1 July 2022). “Data harmonisation for energy system analysis – example of multi-model experiments”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 162: 112472. ISSN 1364-0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2022.112472.
The most significant publication for this community would doubtless be this study that compares five open source frameworks:
- Candas, Soner, Christoph Muschner, Stefanie Buchholz, Rasmus Bramstoft, Jonas van Ouwerkerk, Karlo Hainsch, Konstantin Löffler, Stephan Günther, Sarah Berendes, Stefanie Nguyen, and Aparna Justin (1 June 2022). “Code exposed: review of five open-source frameworks for modeling renewable energy systems”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 161: 112272. ISSN 1364‑0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2022.112272.
Those five frameworks selected are:
And for completeness, the following three open frameworks are covered in the literature below:
The following publications also covers at least one open source framework as indicated:
Bucksteeg, Michael, Michael Wiedmann, Arne Pöstges, Markus Haller, Diana Böttger, Oliver Ruhnau, and Richard Schmitz (1 May 2022). “The transformation of integrated electricity and heat systems — assessing mid-term policies using a model comparison approach”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 160: 112270. ISSN 1364‑0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2022.112270. Includes the EMMA electricity market model.
Gils, Hans Christian, Hedda Gardian, Martin Kittel, Wolf-Peter Schill, Alexander Zerrahn, Alexander Murmann, Jann Launer, Alexander Fehler, Felix Gaumnitz, Jonas van Ouwerkerk, Christian Bußar, Jennifer Mikurda, Laura Torralba-Díaz, Tomke Janßen, and Christine Krüger (1 April 2022). “Modeling flexibility in energy systems — comparison of power sector models based on simplified test cases”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 158: 111995. ISSN 1364-0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111995. Includes the open models DIETER, GENESYS-2, and oemof.
Raventós, Oriol, Thomas Dengiz, Wided Medjroubi, Chinonso Unaichi, Andreas Bruckmeier, and Rafael Finck (1 July 2022). “Comparison of different methods of spatial disaggregation of electricity generation and consumption time series”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 163: 112186. ISSN 1364‑0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2022.112186. Includes the open_eGO model.
Ruhnau, O, M Bucksteeg, D Ritter, R Schmitz, D Böttger, M Koch, A Pöstges, M Wiedmann, and L Hirth (1 January 2022). “Why electricity market models yield different results: carbon pricing in a model-comparison experiment”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 153: 111701. ISSN 1364-0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111701. Includes the EMMA electricity market model.
And here are some further pertinent publications involving only closed source frameworks:
Misconel, S, R Leisen, J Mikurda, F Zimmermann, C Fraunholz, W Fichtner, D Möst, and C Weber (1 January 2022). “Systematic comparison of high-resolution electricity system modeling approaches focusing on investment, dispatch and generation adequacy”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 153: 111785. ISSN 1364‑0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2021.111785.
van Ouwerkerk, Jonas, Karlo Hainsch, Soner Candas, Christoph Muschner, Stefanie Buchholz, Stephan Günther, Hendrik Huyskens, Sarah Berendes, Konstantin Löffler, Christian Bußar, Fateme Tardasti, Luja von Köckritz, and Rasmus Bramstoft (1 June 2022). “Comparing open source power system models — a case study focusing on fundamental modeling parameters for the German energy transition”. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 161: 112331. ISSN 1364‑0321. doi:10.1016/j.rser.2022.112331.
Regarding van Ouwerkerk et al (2022), this April 2022 openmod google groups thread is also related to power system modeling using open source frameworks in a German context: The AC/DC question?.
Finally, several of the authors cited above are active in this community too, so nice to see some social overlap between the open and closed worlds.