Energy system modeling frameworks usually present the user with a rich selection of technologies, energy carriers or commodities, actors in some cases, environmental contexts, and similar building blocks.
These entities can be generalized as modules and this category covers their design and implementation. If using object-oriented programming, modules are often abstracted as classes.
The concept of modules can be extended to cover operational and investment processes, such as spot market auctions, merit order dispatch, capacity planning, and other forms of system optimization.
Examples thus far include:
- nonconvex markets
- heat pumps with state-dependent efficiencies (COP)